Diabetes develops  when our pancreas  produces insufficient amounts of insulin.
Insulin is a hormone that absorbs glucose and uses it for Energy.
If  insulin levels are too low , or the body doesn’t respond to the insulin that is present, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by cells in the body, leading to diabetes.

Diabetes without complications

Diabetes Prevention and treatment programmes are delivered in the following units:
  • The diabetology  unit mainly aims to  help the patients control hyperglycemia by improving their lifestyle and taking antidiabetic drugs. The latter stimulate insulin, glucose and other hormones production in the body. In some cases, insulin itself is administered to the patient.
  • The cardiovascular prevention unit is mainly dedicated to making diagnosis and designing therapies for those patients with high cholesterol and high triglycerid levels, as well as diabetes. Diabetes is often associated with altered lipid metabolism and high levels of fat in their bloodstream. These alterations promote atherosclerosis and require scrupulous investigation to determine whether or they are linked with diabetes and whether specific treatment is needed.
  • Patients with diabetes need to watch their cholesterol levels and keep them below those of non-diabetic  people. Our dietology and clinical nutrition unit  offers guidance to all those patients who want to improve their eating habits or lose weight.
  • A 10-15% reduction in body weight often results in an improved glucose and lipid metabolism, also without the aid of drugs
  • A special unit delivers physical exercise programmes to help patients achieve weight loss and improve their glucose and lipid metabolism.
  • Physical exercise, aerobic exercise in particular, helps prevent and/or delay metabolic syndrome, and reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases (ischemia, stroke, etc.).

attivita fisicaPhysical exercise has a key therapeutic role in the prevention and treatment of clinical conditions resulting from metabolic syndrome. In particular, it promotes:
  • A reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol
  • Lower resting heart rate
  • Improved insulin sensitivity
  • improved muscle vascularization, of the red fibres in particular, resulting in  improved arterial pressure

these goals can be achieve through cardiovascular regulation during exercise, when the patient is exercising on a stationary bike or a treadmill, and through the correct combination between diet and healthy lifestyle.

Diabetes with complications

fluoroangiografia Diabetes is a chronic degenerative disease that rarely has major signs or symptoms. Even after the diagnosis, patients generally report good health.
Despite this, when diabetes occurs in adult patients,  it presents with the typical, most dangerous complications.
Complications include:

macrovascular diseases:
  1. diabetic retinopathy is an ocular manifestation of diabetes, like macular edema, glaucoma and cataract. 16% of diabetic patients treated at Policlinico di Monza have diabetic retinopathy
  2. diabetic nephropathy affects kidneys. Diabetes is one of the main causes of kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy is a prime indication for dialysis. 29% of diabetic patients treated at Policlinico di Monza suffer from diabetic nephropathy.
  3. Diabetic neuropathy involves small blood vessels that supply in organs like the heart and the intestine, the stomach, etc. Symptoms vary and may include numbness and tingling of extremities, abnormal sensation to a body part, slow digestion, loss of bladder control, diarrhoea and erectile dysfunction in men; 12% of the diabetic patients treated at Policlinico di Monza have diabetic neuropathy.

Macrovascular complications

Various forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically damage blood vessels, in particular:
1) coronary vessels with a resulting  risk of myocardial ischemia ; 25% of the diabetic patients treated at Policlinico di Monza has had a coronary or cardiac event.
2) carotid arteries, causing a stroke; 16% of the diabetic patients treated at Policlinico di Monza have had a stroke or a similar event.
3) arteries of the lower limb, possibly resulting in peripheral artery disease and other peripheral nerve disorders, such as the so-called diabetic foot; 8% of the diabetic patients treated at Policlinico di Monza suffer from  diabetic foot.

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